Sunday, September 03, 2006

Post 2

Post 2: Please choose an innovation that you are familiar with and rate it according to each of the five innovation attributes discussed by Rogers. How do these attributes affect the adoption rate in this particular case? Are there any other attributes that one may need to consider?


Chen, Ko-Jung said...
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Avril Adrianne de Guzman said...

I chose the innovation short messaging service (SMS), also known as text messaging. As I said, my country has 7107 islands that span an area of 1,840 km from north to south. This geography, plus the country's determination to leapfrog to new telecommunications technology without laying miles of cable, makes wireless solutions ideal for a population that is close to 80 million.(

The Philippines has also been called the text messaging capital of the world when Smart Communications, one of the two giant mobile phone networks in the country, claimed that the volume of text messages passing through its network reached 240 million daily as of 2001.(

I believe that the five attributes of innovation worked synergistically to make this particular communication technology diffuse so etensively and rapidly in my country.

Relative advantage
The main advantage of text messaging to the usual use of a cellular phone for calling is cost. In my country, it is cheaper to text ($0.02 per message) than to call ($0.18 per minute). The difference may not be so great but in a developing country like mine, mobile phones that have prepaid service are cheaper and more easily available than wired phones. "Texting" offers a mode of communication that is within reach of almost everyone. Text messaging is also faster and more efficient than letters and telegrams, which it replaced.

Text messaging is culturally compatible with Filipino values. Filipinos are known to be very social and friendly and this made the technology immediately fashionable. Many of us are also not as direct and forthright as other cultures and it makes it easier for Fiipinos to say what they feel without necessarily talking about it up front. Filipinos are also a deeply religious people, many are finding text messaging a simple and easy way of sending short, spiritually inspiring messages to relatives and friends. A lot of idle time is also wasted in the terrible traffic of the major cities. During these waiting hours, the mobile phone is used extensively to keep one occupied and in touch.

Text messaging is very popular (for all ages even) because of its simplicity. Filipinos love Nokia models, by far the most popular phones, because of their user-friendly interface and soft, text-friendly, ergonomic keypads.

One can try the text messaging service by using any digital cellular phone; some go for as low as $25. Also, one can see trialability at work since majority of the subscribers use prepaid cards, which one can refill for as low as $2 (PhP100). This has also led to companies making it more and more easy to reload credit onto the card. Electronic load (E-load), which one can buy from any small store on most street corners can go as low as $0.60.

I think that the statistics outlined above make texting as a pervasive technology clear enough. In the Philippines, the use of text messaging has taken off to such an extent that it has made it into the Guinness Book of Records. An astounding 18 million messages are being recorded every day, and a new phrase has emerged: “TEXT ME”. (

Poong Oh said...

Cyworld’s Minihome (CM) may be one of the fastest diffused innovations in Korea. CM is a particular kind of blog services provided by SK telecom, which is the biggest telecommunication company in Korea. The service started in 1999. For next five years, the service has only three millions users. However, on September, 2004 the number of users became doubled and came up to 18 millions on June, 2006. But the number of the users does not increase for the last three months; it leveled off (Korean Electronic Newspaper, Aug. 30th 2006).
Only for seven years, CM has about 70% of the whole Internet users as its users. The trend of cumulative number of CM users is coincided with the S-curve graph suggested by Rogers. During the earlier stage of diffusion the number of users was relatively small, but after 2004, it increased radically. Now the number of users is not going up any more.
In my opinion, the most important attributes of CM that accelerate the rate of diffusion are ‘relative advantage’ and ‘compatibility.’ Different from the other types of blogs which are open to all, the users of CM can decide who can see their blogs; if they do not want to show their CM, they could block unexpected access. In other words, CM can be built as very private space on the Web. And also, they can build special linkages only with their friends or family members so that they can make extremely personalized ego-networks on the Web. This advantage appears especially when many of user’s friends use CM. It means CM has network externalities like fax machine: the more friends of the users use CM, the better ego-network he or she can have.
Moreover, CM is very compatible with other digital devices such as digital camera and mobile phone. While most other types of blogs are largely text-based ones, CM is image-based one. Most contents of individual’s CM are made of images or pictures which are taken with digital cameras or mobile phones that equip camera. Because most young Koreans have digital cameras and/or camera phones, the easiness to upload their digital pictures leads them to use CM. Also, telephoto service provided by SK telecom allows the users to use CM more.
In addition, it is very easy to build decorative homepages without knowledge on computer languages like HTLM or JAVA script. This characteristic can be considered as less complex to learn how to use it. Besides, CM offered trial version and make it possible for non-users to use tentatively.

Chen, Ko-Jung said...

In the trend of innovation adoption, the most interest me is the adoption of the IM (Instant Messenger) software. The basic and simple definition of IM software is that people can communication instantly with words, sound, image and files with their friends, family, colleagues and even customers through internet and they all have to install the IM software between two ends of the communicator. The statistics indicates that the top ranking of IM software in the world is the AOL Instant Messenger (AIM) having 56% market share. The IM of Microsoft Network (MSN) and The IM of Yahoo (Yahoo Messenger) are ranked the second 25% market share and the third 19% market share. In my country, Taiwan, the MSN have the most market share and the next is Yahoo messenger and Skype, which is communication software mainly with microphone through internet and regarded as different communication software different from IM by some people.
The emergence of the IM (Instant Messenger) is start from the ICQ software invented by four Israel young men in 1996 and the purpose of the ICQ is originally for military use. The rate of adoption is so fast because this new concept reverses the traditional thought that the functions of internet is for searching, surfing, and e-mail. Until now, there are over 150 million ICQ users in the world. However, the emergence of MSN Messenger in 1999 weakens the rate of adoption of ICQ, not only because they integrate different service but also they provide more personal characteristic.
In this background, therefore, the this article is mainly focus on the innovation of Microsoft Network Messenger (MSN) and explain the rate of innovation of adoption of MSN.

Attributes of Innovation
1. Relative Advantage
As far as I’m concerned, the main characteristics and benefits of the MSN can be summarized for several points: (1) talk instantly through words, microphone, and web camera, (2) send documents, files, pictures, and videos, (3) faster than e-mail, (4) maintain secrecy on internet, (5) share thought and picture with blog, (6) search specific topic and idea, (7) use internationally, (8) custom-made to express yourself. Some of the benefits are unique for MSN, and some of them are integrate from previous characteristics of internet.
(1)Economic Factor
Because the communication of the MSN is trough internet, it cost nothing when one uses MSN to talk with one or more people in the same time. Moreover, an survey of American research institution indicates that about 38% of employees in corporations use MSN for commercial purpose because MSN reduces gratefully in expense of telecommunication and increase the efficiency contacting with customers. Using the IM (Instant Messenger) makes corporations become Instant Enterprise.
(2)Status Aspects
The MSN is broadly adopted by teenage is because the reason of status aspect or peer effect. Teenagers are easily affected by peer group when the peer group adopt one innovation. They can discuss the popular culture and find an identity through MSN. On the other hand, adoption of MSN may becomes a kind of fashion among the teenagers.
However, the adoption of MSN also causes some negative effects. In the corporations, more and more employers inhibit their employee use MSN when in the office, because MSN also diverge the employee’s attentions and increase the cost of management. There are another problem that there are many hacker and sender of trash mail use the MSN to spread the virus and trash mails.

2. Compatibility
The MSN integrate various functions and make compatible to different country and technology. Unlike other IM software, for example, MSN don’t require users to install different versions of user’s country. That’s mean that everyone in the world can use the same version of MSN without encountering ant technology problem which always seem as a obstruct for innovation of adoption. Users are no limited by technology causes when they have different conditions.
(1) Compatibility with previously introduced idea
The reason that MSN adopted by so many people is that adopters have already recognized the innovation of ICQ. After adoption of ICQ, MSN combined the basic function of instant messenger with the computer functions like searching, mail which make people familiar with this new innovation. Therefore, it is possible that people previously use ICQ may use MSN latter more quick or comfortable.
(2)Compatibility with needs
There is one new function that makes people leave message when the other didn’t on-line, that is off-line message. This off-line message fit the need when you want find someone who is not on-line status, although this function is slower than instant messenger but faster than e-mail.
(3) Technology Clusters
The distinct technology of clusters is that MSN combine instant messenger with video telecommunication. People can utilize these different functions in one software and they don’t have to install specific software for specific use. This reason also promote the rate of adoption.
(4)Naming an Innovation
The name of innovation affect obviously on ICQ rather than MSN. The name of ICQ means “I seek you” which is easily for people to understand the central idea of the ICQ seeking someone you don’t know and talk them on-line. However, the MSN is original mean “Microsoft Network” rather than “ Microsoft Network Messenger.” Ironically, The name of MSN has bee wrongly use by people but this doesn’t reduce the rate of adoption.

3. Complexity
The concept of MSN is mainly adopted by new generations who familiar with the new technology such as computer, the adoption of MSN for older people who don’t familiar with the new technology will relative slow.
4. Trialability
The software of MSN is very easy for people to install and to uninstall. People can try MSN without any limitation and cost in any circumstance and any time.
5. Observability
People also can observe the benefits of MSN through others’ computer in different situation. For instant, people use MSN in an office of corporation can be observed by others, which would accelerate the rate of adoption.

john thomas said...

Innovation chosen is the hybrid automobile:

I am using the five attributes from Rogers, fifth edition, 2003, page 222.

The five attributes are 1. Relative advantage, 2. Compatibility, 3. Complexity, 4. Trialability and 5. Observability.

1. The relative advantage is primarily fuel cost and $ savings. This is significant in that fuel cost is high and rising with little likelihood of relief. The savings are significant in that some hybrids get as much as 60 mpg vs. 30 for a current vehicle.
2. The hybrid is compatible in that it is wholly comparable to current low mileage products that now exist. It will fit in a garage, pull a boat or camper, haul luggage, and transport passengers in comfort.
3. The hybrid is not complex, it operates in a similar manner to current autos. There are major operational differences, and they are complex, but they are not apparent to the operator/driver. The purchaser, decision maker does not have to deal with the complexity.
4. It is easy to get a trial, you can test drive any of the hybrids at a mix of auto dealerships
5. The car is easy to observe, I want one, I see them all the time, on the road. Further, I see them gassing-up, and have talked casually with owners of the hybrids.

john thomas

Tom said...

Innovation: Videophone

Once, in class, we mentioned the possibility of trying an online class period, and in the back of my mind I wondered if video would have been part of it. It got me thinking about the adoption of recent video technologies (digital video recorders, webcams, etc...), especially since I have a pet programming project involving videoconferencing software. One of the things I realized was that as broadband connections and VoIP telephony (Voice over IP) gain popularity, videophony might now finally have the bandwidth necessary to actually gain widespread adoption. It's one of those devices, in my opinion, that is common to science fiction, yet it hasn't really taken off in reality.

Relative Advantage
The relative advantage of videophones is the ability for users to observe the person they are calling, gaining access to the nonverbal feedback that is lost in traditional telephone calls. Additionally, there are benefits for hearing-impaired users who currently rely on text telephones (TDD).

One of the things going against videophones is that despite an overall compatibility with face-to-face communication, videophones, go somewhat against the trend of telephones in general; they have become smaller over time, whereas a videophone (with a screen & camera in addition to the microphone & speaker) would be an increase in size. Further, phones can be carried around easily (even corded phones in the home), whereas a videophone would require a fixed position. Lastly, though the advantage of videophony is access to nonverbal cues, essentially all telecommunication technologies up to this point have had a distinct deficiency of these cues to varying degrees (Instant/Text messaging, email, telephone); nonverbal cues only present in face-to-face.

In general, I don't think a videophone would be much more complicated than a standard telephone; the tasks and general function are still the same (placing & answering calls).

Currently, the trialability for videophones is low. Other technologies such as webcams are gaining in popularity though, which may be similar enough to videophone to give adopters a chance to see how real-time streaming video/audio functions.

Videophones have a medium amount of observability; people can observe the hardware for the phone, but since it would likely be in a fixed location, the observability would be less than that of say, a cell phone, and more on the level of the standard telephone.

karenlee said...
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karenlee said...

I would like to discuss “mini-homepage” as an innovation provided by a Korean based social networking website called Cyworld. Over five years, Cyworld has recorded unsurpassed success, recently expanding the service to China, Japan, and the US.
Cyworld’s mini-homepage was introduced in 2001. It is differentiated from previous blogs and homepages in that the mid-sized pop-up page is mainly picture-oriented and offers diverse multimedia services including music, video, and different decorative items sold using cyber-currency called “acorns.”
Cyworld started off with 500,000 users in 2001, the numbers boosting to 18 million in five years. More than 90 percent of Koreans age 20 to 29 are subscribed to Cyworld, and 30 percent of Koreans are subscribed (CNet Aug 11, 2006). Many times, I’ve wondered why so many Koreans chose to use the mini homepage, and the five innovation attributes seem to provide a theoretical foundation for the continuous expansion.
First, the different versions of mini-homepages for different geographical area assure compatibility for any Internet user who is familiar with Korean, English, Chinese, and Japanese. In addition, mini homepages are very compatible with the collectivistic culture of Koreans who enjoy meeting new people, maintaining contact with old friends, and sharing their everyday life with others. Moreover, the image-based structure of the homepage seems to fulfill the ever-increasing visual interest and orientation of young people today (compatibility).
Second, the whopping number of users subscribed to Cyworld’s mini homepage is almost a pressure for young Korean users to create one of their own in order to keep up with the “trend.” Because so many people choose to use the mini homepage the close contacts, or “neighbors,” are more convenient to check up on, as to if one had a homepage on a different service provider(observability).
The convenience of using a Mini Homepage as mentioned above seems to fit into both the observability and the relative advantage category. In addition, Mini Homepages offer different “pages” of the homepage to upload different multimedia services, such as pictures, music, streaming video, journal, and even self-made magazines.
The greatest advantage of mini homepage seems to be that it is ready-made. Because everything is laid out on the table for the user, even the “computer-blind” can enjoy creating his/her personalized page(complexity).
For anyone who has access to the Internet, Cyworld’s Mini Homepage is just a click away (trialability).

For those hardware innovations, other than the five attributes, price and design seem to be attributes that people would consider before adopting. An example would be Mac Computers, which have reaped great success partly due to their attractive designs.

Daniela said...

Posted for Cathy (Susu)

I select the birth of MP3 player as my analyzing subject. It is the innovation of electric music player. MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3, more commonly referred to as MP3, is a popular digital audio encoding and lossy compression format, designed to greatly reduce the amount of data required to represent audio, yet still sound like a faithful reproduction of the original uncompressed audio to most listeners. It was invented by a team of European engineers who worked in the framework of the digital radio research program, and it became an ISO/IEC standard in 1991.(

About 10 years ago, young people who are fond of music all wanna own a CD player which can bring them music at any time they want. It was very popular because people can take the portable, small music equipement with them to enjoy the music anywhere. After 10 years , because of the high technology's development, the tiny fashinon music player MP3 comes out. Nowadays,more and more kinds of MP3 come to compete in the market. The five attributes affect the innovation of this portable music equipment.

1. Relative advantage,
Compared with the old CD player, it has more advantages, it has much smaller size which can make it much more convenient to be taken with, it has more space to save the songs, and it can collect even hundreds of songs at one time in a short time and does not need any CD disks to insert into. Especially, people can download the music from internet which can save a lot of money. And it also can include the function of radio and recording. Moreover, such as i-pod, it can even show the images or the short video with the music.

2. Compatibility,
MP3 has the same or even better sound quality with CD player.And people who are fond of music will like the MP3 format because it can bring the same music as CD player, sometimes, it even can be changed with the modes of sound to imitate and recall the real band occasion. Meanwhile, we have to notice that the different personalities could have effects on the compatibility. For example,several people just prefer the pattern of CD player, they like the way of collecting CDs of different albumns. Also, it depends on different countries' government's policies.Maybe in some countries downloading the music resource from the internet is free or very cheap, but in some countries, it is very expensive even more expensive than purchasing the CDs, or even sometimes it is not illegal to download some music from the internet. In addition, usually, the music people can find on internet are not very up- dating but very old. They can just find the newest albumn in the music store, CD shelf.

3. Complexity, Also, since the use of computer and internet is spreading day by day,it is easy to learn how to use the MP3 and downloading the resource from the internet. But maybe not easy for people who are not familiar with computer or who refuse to accept new technology. And the little MP3 could have so many different functions for listening to the music. It also takes time to become familiar with it.

4. Trialability
The stores could have a lot of methods to promote their new MP3, they provide the samples for people to try them. They make the advertisments by using popular superstar who use it as early adopter. After the experiments and trying, people find it is really convenient to use MP3 instead of CD player. And they wanna copy the examples of those celebrities who are considered "very cool" to use MP3.

5. Observability
When people feel not certain about the new product MP3, they do not wanna accept it too soon. They could get used to the CD player, even they can have a strong affection of the old thing. So they want to stand by to oberserve. They can hear the information from a lot of channels, such as mass media and the people who have already used the MP3. And they might get some information from internet. When they see the results anf effects after people use the new product. They just begin to think about if they accept the new product.Is it safe or high quality?They want collect enough information about one brand of MP3.Then make the decision of purchasing it.

Furthermore, as for the other attributes, as what I mentioned above in (2) compatibility and (5)observability. I think the culture difference, people's personalities and traditional notions and different governments' administrative policies are all the important attributes for the innovations.


Soonok said...

I want to explain the internet use for the public in general as the innovation.

1. Relative advantage - I remember when I was in a college, around 1992-1996, the internet was introduced to the school and the netscape, the internet browser was used. Of course, we have to write our term papers using the computer, therefore, we are kind of used to the computer. However, the internet, itself, is pretty much new to us. Since whenever we need to find some sosurces or references, we should go to the library. However, after the internet was introduced, we actually don't have to go to the library physically, just using the search option, we can find some articles or papers about the topic we want to know. That was very convenient and easy ways to do some research. So, the internet use is very popular among the young students and business men or women.

2. Compatibility - We do not have any thing like the internet. However, we are already used to the computer, at least wording... So, we know how to use some software programs. Internet is not a software programs. So, whenever you need something, you can find the results using a lot of options (key word searching, name, features). Since the computer itself is kind of common to the public, in Korea, the internet use is not a big deal whenver we have an access to the interent.

3. Complexity - The reason why the internet use is so rapidly expanding is that the internet use is very easy to apply.... As I mentioned earler, if you can type the word, you can search the anything you want. It is very easy to adapt ourselves to the new innovations.

4. Trialibility - The reason also the internet is so popular is that a lot of academic institutions and business sectors encouraged the public to use the internet. So, the opinion leaders in a society (business men or women or scholars) actually was leading the internet use. The internet was very accessible where the public go such as libraries, schools, and shopping centers.

5. Observability - Of course, there are a lot of examples the internet use save the money and efforts to find the data. We actually see how efficient the internet use is in terms of cost and time. Especially, the business sector shows the good examples of how they save the money by using the interent. So, it was enough to follow their footstep to use the internet.

Even more, the internet use is very profitable when you are actually involved with the business. It gave you a lot of information you never thought of. Also, the broad information gave It can create the new ideas for any business and also it can be related to the money. That is one important reason. It can create a profit for an individual level, society level or nation level.

Sandy Wang said...

I would like to talk about the diffusion of mp3 plays. Mp3 is one of the most popular digital products nowadays. In a recent China based survey, 83.8% of the respondents have got an mp3 player. (ZDC.ZOL.COM.CN) In another survey, more than 70% of the respondents have decided or considering to buy an mp3 player. (IT.COM.CN). According to Rogers’ five innovation attributes, I would like to relate the following attributes of mp3 player to the adoption of it.
1. Relative advantage
Compared to CD player, mp3 player is much smaller and more portable. It can be kept in our pocket or even hang around neck. And there’s no need to take the heavy CD Disks with you.
Mp3 player also has many capabilities that CD player does not have. Take my ipod for example. It can be used as a flask disk, a photo viewer, recorder, and even an address book.
Using expense is also lower. Buying mp3 music on the internet is much cheaper than buying a CD disk. In addition, some websites also provide users with free mp3 music. It is also time saving to download mp3 on the internet by clicking your mouse than going to the audio shop to buy a CD.
2. Compatibility
Mp3 player has an inherent compatibility with computer. People today who are accustomed to the use of computer, are more likely to adopt it. On the other hand they may find it troublesome changing CD disks. There are also some PC companies selling mp3 player with their computer, and provide extra software to make the use of mp3 player much easier.
Owning an Mp3 player has became a trend. My little sister who is now in middle school, keeping asking my aunt to buy her an ipod, because all of her friends have.
3. Complexity
People are now live in a Digital Age. They, especially young people who are the main consumer of mp3, are so familiar with all kinds of digital things, computer, cell phone, so there will not be so many difficulties for them to use the simplified mp3 player.
4. Trailability
Every sales counter provide commodities trial. Or you can just take a look at your friends’ mp3. For software, you can audition any mp3 music on the internet before you decide to buy any.
5. Observability
Both the hardware and the software of mp3 player are observable for other people. There are so many people on the road wearing earphones. And when you get on the internet, there are thousands of mp3 for you to download.

In addition, the copyright of mp3 track is becoming an important element in the diffusion of mp3 player. As in China, government is paying more attention to the anti-piracy and anti- infringement campaign. If it will prevent mp3 player from diffusion is still unknown.

Helen said...

Social Networking Websites

Social networking websites, such as Facebook, Myspace, and Friendster, have recently been widely adopted. Part of the so-called “web 2.0”, they allow individuals to contribute content to the internet, in a very personal way.

Relative Advantage

Social networking sites enable an individual to “keep tabs” on others within a circle of friends, and inform friends of one's activities and interests. They can also be a way to make new friends based on common interests. Because of the interactive nature of these sites, they offer an advantage over previous methods of keeping in touch with distant or infrequently seen friends, such as Christmas letters. Everything done on them is public to other friends, which can be seen as either an advantage or a disadvantage depending on one's values and beliefs.


Someone with a strong belief in the value of privacy is not likely to be compatible with social networking sites. Someone who doesn't mind, or even desires, friends of friends to learn personal details about themself, is much more compatible with a social networking site. Social networking sites are a logical extension of previous ideas, such as having a personal homepage.


Social networking sites are designed so that the high degree of complexity isn't obvious in an initial use, but is discovered though continued usage.


Like many things on the internet, social networking sites are simple to try out, generally requireing only an email address.


While it's unlikely that an individual who has not adopted social networking sites will watch someone using one, it is possible. What is more likely is that he or she will hear others discussing information learned through the usage of a social networking site.

Susana Vidrio said...

I choose e-government, which I find to be one of the most difficult to adopt Innovations, especially in developed nations. Why?, because there is a great digital divide among people who have become savvy when it comes to using the innovations, but some communities, rural communities, tend to be very far from the innovation is being diffused and governmental efforts are very apart from those communities.

I think electronic commerce has a lot of relative advantages:
1. It allows users (citizens) to reach the administration out of office hours, that means that the information about processes and requirements that are needed to get a license, prices, documents needs in order to get them 24/7, without having to call any operators or having to wait in line.
2. It allows users to have access to the electronic systems and on line payment for the same licenses, certificates and all taxes can be paid on line without even having to go to the bank.
3. It brings the information abroad; by making it available for those people that live in far communities (the problem is they need a computer and Internet connection).

When it comes to Compatibility, this innovation has a lot of restrictions. I personally had the opportunity to share some information with other representatives of bigger states in Mexico such as Chihuahua, Aguascalientes and Queretaro, and they all used different types of software and hardware. While some states needed for more detailed systems, others required more robust and more complete processes and hardware, so the databases, systems and protocols were all different. Initially, this seemed like a good idea, but in the long term, this will represent a problem since the hole idea is to have related and common data bases, and to be able to share them along states and finally, have a unique Federal system, which may not be possible due to this compatibility problem.

When it comes to complexity, this type of innovations require a lot of work from the user and a lot of understanding of what the systems are able to do and what are the implications of having to use new ways of communication and payment. Especially when it comes to on line payments, Mexican users tend to be very distrustful and very reluctant to adopt this type of payment method. So, in order to revert this situation, the government has started up a set of campaigns and mass media communication and has provided with personal help to the users.

The trial ability, in the case of Colima, has been a successful story, since the state government has provided a variety of KIOSKOS, cabinets that have been set in all the major malls and “Public Plazas” with computers and cashiers and personnel to inform and to help people get in touch and to feel, see and try what it is to search for information on line and to have some operations done, like paying for the driver’s license, getting certificates and so on.

The Observability is also gained with this Kioskos, which help people to observe how the innovation is performed and also to recognize de P.O.P. Places of Purchase or places when they can perform these activities.